The Articular capsule of the Ankle Joint:
A fibrous capsule surrounds the ankle. This capsule is relatively thin anteriorly and posteriorly, but is strengthened medially and laterally by strong collateral ligaments. The capsule is attached superiorly to the borders of the articular surfaces of the tibia and the malleoli. Inferiorly, it is attached to the talus.
The Medial or Deltoid Ligament:
This ligament anchors the medial malleolus to the tarsal bones. The proximal attachment is to the margins and tip of the medial malleolus. The ligament than spreads out distally to attach to three tarsal bones: talus, navicular, and calcaneus.
Components of the Deltoid ligament
- Anterior tibiotalar
- Posterior tibiotalar
Function of the deltoid ligament:
- Strengthen the joint and hold the calcaneus and navicular bones against the talus.
- Maintain the medial longitudinal arch of the foot
Lateral Ligaments of the ankle:
They are not as strong as the deltoid ligament, and consist of 3 ligaments that attach the lateral malleolus to the talus and calcaneous.
Components of the lateral ligaments:
- Anterior talofibular ligament
- Posterior talofibular ligament