Vascular Quiz

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(#) indicates the suggested number of items to consider in a complete answer

Radiology Findings:

  1. What CT findings may suggest mediastinal hemorrhage (4):
    Answer: a. Poorly defined fat planes.
    b. Perivascular hematoma.
    c. Periaortic hematoma.
    d. Contrast extravasation.

  2. The direct signs of aortic injury include:
    Answer: a. Abnormal contour of aorta.
    b. Change in caliber.
    c. Intraluminal irregularity (intimal flap).

  3. In simple terms, describe the Stanford classification for aortic dissection?
    Answer: a. Type A involves ascending aorta.
    b. Type B does not involve ascending aorta.

  4. What is the most likely etiology of a very large aneurysmal aortic root with sinotubular ectasia (tulip bulb appearance)
    Answer: Marfan syndrome.

  5. What is a basic differential diagnosis for CT or angiographic findings suspicious for aortic dissection? (3)
    Answer: a. Aortic dissection
    b. Together the following two diagnoses constitute the acute aortic syndrome:
    - Intramural hematoma
    - Penetrating aortic ulcer

  6. Diagnosis of chronic PE by pulmonary angiography is based on the identification of what supporting findings? (4)
    Answer: a. Webs
    b. Luminal irregularities
    c. Abrupt vessel narrowing and/or obstruction
    d. Dilated central pulmonary arteries

  7. The angiographic appearance of diabetic vascular disease differs from typical atherosclerosis in which two main ways?
    Answer: a. Vascular calcification involving arteries of all sizes.
    b. Disease involvement is more distal, often sparring large proximal vessels.

  8. What is the typical radiographic finding of Giant Cell Arteritis?
    Answer: Smooth, long segment narrowing

  9. What is the angiographic hallmark appearance of Buerger disease?
    Answer: a. Corkscrew appearance of arteries.
    b. Collaterals around areas of occlusion (most often at wrists and ankles).
    c. Absence of atherosclerotic findings.
    d. May present with gangrenous digits in a young patient

  10. The range of angiographic findings in trauma include what 5 main categories of vascular pathology?
    Answer: a. Vasospasm
    b. Intimal irregularity
    c. Pseudoaneurysm
    d. Extravasation
    e. Arteriovenous fistula

  11. Aortoiliac occlusive disease can be caused by which inflammatory disease in particular? What are the radiographic findings?
    Answer: a. Takayasu arteritis
    b. Long segment, smooth narrowing of abdominal aorta
    c. May extend into branch vessels

  12. What are the classic radiographic findings in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)?
    Answer: a. A rare necrotizing vasculitis that affects small and medium-sized arteries of multiple organs.
    b. Most commonly
    - kidney (85%)
    - Liver (65%)
    c. Multiple, small, saccular microaneurysms, occlusions, and irregular stenoses throughout abdominal viscera. Most commonly present in the kidney (85%) or liver (65%).