(#) indicates the suggested number of items to consider in a complete answer
What CT findings may suggest mediastinal hemorrhage (4):
a. Poorly defined fat planes.
b. Perivascular hematoma.
c. Periaortic hematoma.
d. Contrast extravasation.
The direct signs of aortic injury include:
a. Abnormal contour of aorta.
b. Change in caliber.
c. Intraluminal irregularity (intimal flap).
In simple terms, describe the Stanford classification for aortic dissection?
a. Type A involves ascending aorta.
b. Type B does not involve ascending aorta.
What is the most likely etiology of a very large aneurysmal aortic root with sinotubular ectasia (tulip bulb appearance)
What is a basic differential diagnosis for CT or angiographic findings suspicious for aortic dissection? (3)
a. Aortic dissection
b. Together the following two diagnoses constitute the acute aortic syndrome:
- Intramural hematoma
- Penetrating aortic ulcer
Diagnosis of chronic PE by pulmonary angiography is based on the identification of what supporting findings? (4)
b. Luminal irregularities
c. Abrupt vessel narrowing and/or obstruction
d. Dilated central pulmonary arteries
The angiographic appearance of diabetic vascular disease differs from typical atherosclerosis in which two main ways?
a. Vascular calcification involving arteries of all sizes.
b. Disease involvement is more distal, often sparring large proximal vessels.
What is the typical radiographic finding of Giant Cell Arteritis?
Smooth, long segment narrowing
What is the angiographic hallmark appearance of Buerger disease?
a. Corkscrew appearance of arteries.
b. Collaterals around areas of occlusion (most often at wrists and ankles).
c. Absence of atherosclerotic findings.
d. May present with gangrenous digits in a young patient
The range of angiographic findings in trauma include what 5 main categories of vascular pathology?
b. Intimal irregularity
e. Arteriovenous fistula
Aortoiliac occlusive disease can be caused by which inflammatory disease in particular? What are the radiographic findings?
a. Takayasu arteritis
b. Long segment, smooth narrowing of abdominal aorta
c. May extend into branch vessels
What are the classic radiographic findings in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)?
a. A rare necrotizing vasculitis that affects small and medium-sized arteries of multiple
b. Most commonly
- kidney (85%)
- Liver (65%)
c. Multiple, small, saccular microaneurysms, occlusions, and irregular stenoses throughout abdominal viscera. Most commonly present in the kidney (85%) or liver (65%).